The EMB-145 AEW&C's mission system is developed around the Ericsson ERIEYE active, phased-array pulse-Doppler radar and is integrated with an onboard command and control system. Electronic surveillance measures for monitoring communications and non-communications activities are also integrated with the system.
In 1997, Embraer was awarded a contract to develop and produce the ERIEYE-based EMB-145 AEW&C (designated R-99A) aircraft, together with another version of the same aircraft, the EMB-145 RS remote sensing (designated R-99B) variant, for the Brazilian Government's SIVAM programme.
The Brazilian Air Force (FAB) ordered five AEW&C and three EMB-145 RS aircraft. The first AEW&C aircraft was delivered to the Brazilian Air Force in July 2002 and deliveries were completed in December 2003.
The Hellenic Air Force of Greece has ordered four EMB-145 AEW&C. The first was delivered in December 2003 and deliveries completed in May 2005. Entry into service is expected in mid-2008. Mexico has ordered one aircraft for border and coastline monitoring which was delivered in June 2004. Erieye radar systems have also been ordered by Sweden. In February 2005, Embraer signed a memorandum of understanding with India for the procurement of three systems.
In July 2008, a deal was finally signed, under which Embraer will supply three ERJ-145 aircraft and perform the modifications required to carry the active array antenna unit (AAAU) AEW&C system developed by India's Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). Deliveries are scheduled to begin in 2011.
A fleet of three aircraft is sufficient to sustain two airborne patrols around the clock for a limited time, or one airborne patrol with one aircraft on continuous ground alert for more than 30 days. Although capable of long endurance at normal patrol speeds, the EMB-145 has a high dash speed which contributes to survivability on patrol missions.
The EMB-145 AEW&C crew includes the pilot and co-pilot, five mission systems specialists and up to three reserve crew members. The aircraft is equipped with five or six mission operator consoles.
The all-glass cockpit is fitted with five displays – primary flight displays, multi-function displays and the engine indication and crew alerting system (EICAS) – with multi-reversionary capabilities.
Avionic systems include full TACAS II (traffic alerting and collision avoidance), a ground proximity warning system (GPWS) and windshear detector. Dual digital air data computers drive the attitude and heading reference system (AHRS).
The pilot is provided with a head-up display particularly for landing guidance. The aircraft has two radio altimeters and an instrument landing system. A dual integrated computer controls the autopilot flight director (APFD), windshear detector and EICAS.
ERIEYE has been developed by Ericsson Microwave Systems. The system comprises an active, phased-array pulse-Doppler radar including integrated secondary surveillance radar and identification friend or foe (SSR/IFF), a comprehensive, modular command-and-control system, electronic support measures (ESM), communications and datalinks.
Rather than conventional rotodome antenna system, ERIEYE has a fixed, dual-sided and electronically scanned antenna mounted on top of the fuselage. This places much less demand on aircraft size and is designed for mounting on commuter-type aircraft. The ERIEYE is capable of 360° detection and tracking of air and sea targets over the horizon. The instrumented range is 450km and a typical detection range against a fighter aircraft size target is in excess of 350km.
The system uses advanced solid-state electronics, open-system architecture and ruggedised commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware, including general-purpose programmable workstations and full-colour LCD displays. The ERIEYE radar is already in service with the Swedish Air Force and is in series production for Brazil and other customers.
The SIVAM programme is designed to survey the entire Amazon Basin, an area considerably greater than that of Western Europe. Eight aircraft, five for surveillance and three for remote sensing are used for environmental protection, natural resources survey, border surveillance and support of sustained development in the Amazon region. The aircraft are operated by FAB from the Annapolis air force base.
The EMB-145 RS remote sensing aircraft is equipped with synthetic aperture radar, forward-looking infrared / television (FLIR/TV), multi-spectral scanner, COMINT communications intelligence suite, ELINT electronics intelligence system and an on-board recording and processing system. The RS aircraft will be capable of providing updated mapping information and imagery of the area.
The R-99A is an Airborne Early Warning & Control aircraft, equipped with the Erieye airborne radar from Saab Microwave Systems (formerly Ericsson Microwave Systems) of Sweden. The FAB claims that it has 95% of the capability of the larger AWACS aircraft which are in service in the air forces of other nations.
The R-99B is a remote sensing aircraft. It employs a synthetic aperture radar, combination electro-optical and FLIR systems as well as a multi-spectral scanner. The aircraft also possesses signal intelligence and C3I capabilities.
The P-99 is the maritime patrol version of the R-99. It shares much of the same sensor suite as the R-99B, but most visibly, lacks the multi-spectral scanner and the side-looking radar. It retains many of the C3I and ELINT capabilities of the R-99B. The P-99 also carries four underwing hardpoints, which can be mounted with a variety of torpedoes and/or anti-ship missiles. Mexico was the launch customer for this variant.
In Brazilian service, the R-99A and R-99B are based in Anapolis AFB. Five R-99As and three R-99Bs are operated by the Air Force as part of the SIVAM program.
Specifications (ERJ 140)Data from Suppositions according to EMB 145 family specifications.
Crew: 3; pilot, co-pilot, flight attendant
Length: 28.45 m (93 ft 4 in)
Wingspan: 20.04 m (65 ft 9 in)
Height: 6.76 m (22 ft 2 in)
Wing area: 51.2 m² (551 ft²)
Empty weight: 11,740 kg (25,900 lb)
Loaded weight: 17,100 kg (37,700 lb)
Max takeoff weight: 21,100 kg (46,500 lb)
Powerplant: 2 × Rolls-Royce AE 3007A turbofan, 33.0 kN (7,420 lbf) each
Maximum speed: 834+ km/h (518+ mph, Mach 0.78+)
Range: 3,019 km + internal tanks (1,876 miles + internal tanks)
Service ceiling: 11,278+ m (37,000+ ft)
Rate of climb: 780+ m/min (2,560+ ft/min)
Wing loading: 334+ kg/m² (68+ lb/ft²